Kids + Teens

The Surprisingly Complex Principles of a Successful Picture Book

Picture books look simple, right? Well, they’re meant to look simple. But like most books, Over and Under the Snow represents years of work, conversations, revisions, impatience, worry, and inspiration.

While discussing the principles of a good picture book would take much longer than one blog post, Over and Under offers a nice opportunity to explore some of the ways children’s books do a great deal in spare words and art.



Over the snow I glide. Into woods, frosted fresh and white.

Cadence is not something you can build from instructions; Ikea does not sell it. Most talented writers seem to have an innate sense of the various musics of our language and the effects of those musics—I don’t know anyone who does this by anything other than feel.

And yet the effect here is very deliberate. The rhythm of these sentences is regular; it is the rhythm of the skiers’ movements; the repeated “ess” sounds evoke the swish of the skis on snow. (In these spare eleven words, there are five sets of repeated sounds. Alliteration and assonance generate a connectedness in these words in addition to their meaning.) And listen to the pauses—you can’t hurry through this arrangement of words. Particularly the combination of ‘frosted’ with ‘fresh’ makes a very slight tongue-twister. Between that and the punctuation, the reader unconsciously pauses three times in this short speech. What we hear in Kate’s words is as important as what she makes us hear in between the words—the space, the hush of this winter landscape.



“Under the snow is a whole secret kingdom, where the smallest forest animals stay safe and warm. You’re skiing over them now.”

Chipmunk, mouse, squirrel—their renderings here vary a bit, tempting the reader to pause on them, wonder about them. But their proportion to each other is deliberately consistent, because some children will never before have seen a chipmunk (for example). Research by the author, the artist, and the fact-checker (always, a fact-checker, just to be sure) underlies every piece of good nonfiction.

Accuracy is less sexy than other qualities, but still of fundamental importance. Behind the scenes at the publisher of any nonfiction book, there is a great deal of discussion about the line between artistic interpretation (in both text and art) and the factual import children need from nonfiction books. How much abstraction for artistic intent is acceptable? What needs to come across in information? What needs to come across in feeling?

Another example of the thoughtful choice between fact and interpretation is the term “secret kingdom”, which is used more than once in the book. Not until the backmatter does Kate explain that the technical term for the place under the snow but above the ground is “subnivean zone”. Both terms are powerful for different reasons, and we deliberately made space for both in the book.



Over the snow I glide, past beech trees rattling leftover leaves and strong silent pines that stretch to the sky. Under the snow, a tiny shrew dodges columns of ice; it follows a cool tunnel along the moss, out of sight.

The girl is skiing among the columns of trees; the shrew is scampering among the columns of ice. Over and over, Kate and Chris draw parallels (sometimes gentle, sometimes direct) between the aboveground, visible world, and the hidden worlds under the snow. Connection is important: the central character in almost every book is a proxy for the reader, and that means the connection between the girl and the under-the-snow world is the connection between the reader and the under-the-snow world.

This book offers readers the chance to identify more strongly with these small, often forgotten animals—and the more a child can identify with the world around them, the more that child has the experience of feeling that the world they inhabit belongs to them. That’s a powerful feeling for a child.



Under the covers, I snuggle deep and drift into dreams.


Of cuddling deer mice and slumbering frogs. Hungry beavers and tunneling voles. Drowsy bears and busy squirrels. And the secret kingdom under the snow.

All of this text could have happened cozily on the spread of the girl under her covers, and the ending would have been satisfying. But Chris took us back outside to a sky full of woodland animal constellations, and the ending became . . . magical.

We don’t talk about this element of books much. Partially we avoid it because it is tempting to use the word “magic”, and that runs the risk of people not taking us seriously, but mostly it is because it is difficult to describe and highly subjective.

Nevertheless, mystery is the secret spice of all compelling books. It is the unexpected and yet perfectly fitting element; when it appears its rightness is palpable, and yet often just beyond the reach of easy explanation. Why does it feel so right? We can’t quite put our fingers on it.

Another reason mystery is less talked about, I think, is because many people meet this fascinating, fleeting sense of a meaning almost grasped, a music almost heard, and conclude it is a failure in themselves and in others to fully comprehend a book. This is not so.

Conceptual layers, conceptual depth, is what creates nuanced and interesting books. The elusive intellectual feeling of mystery comes from our minds’ effort to compare multiple conceptual frameworks, like looking through layers of tracing paper to see the one image those layers create. It’s intellectual exercise, and it’s fun. And it means you’re doing it right.

Mystery is what draws us back to a book again and again; it is what makes any work of art more than the sum of its parts.

If you want to see the many other instances of cadence, accuracy, connection, and magic in Over and Under the Snow, you’ll have to buy the book. Enjoy!

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To learn more about the nuts and bolts (or backbones and headbands) of the publishing business, you can read about…

Melissa Manlove

Melissa Manlove

Melissa Manlove is a children’s book editor and, in her spare time, a bookseller.
Melissa Manlove



  • Ishta Mercurio February 17, 2012 at 9:05 pm

    YES! What you say about mystery being what draws a reader back to a book over and over – yes, definitely.

    Thank you for sharing so much of the process behind this lovely book.


  • Jeanette W. Stickel February 17, 2012 at 10:33 pm

    You've sold me! What a beautiful book, at least what I've seen of it in this post. Thank you for the lovely analysis. You’ve inspired me to pull out my manuscripts and get back to work.


  • Jill Bergman February 18, 2012 at 8:38 am

    What a great post! It's hard to describe what makes a good book so special, but you've explained the different "magical" elements so well! Over and Under the Snow looks really lovely.


  • Kristi Valiant February 18, 2012 at 9:12 pm

    What a beautiful post. Thank you.


  • Emma February 19, 2012 at 2:45 pm

    Very interesting post. Thanks! And I loved this book.


  • kwalston February 19, 2012 at 3:12 pm

    Thank you so much for such a wonder exploration of what appears to be so simple but is so deliciously complex and filled with talent and ideas from beginning to end: children's books! As a mother, grandmother and English teacher, I live and breathe books, no matter what age bracket but I admit a special affinity to well-written children's books. What an honor and a trust to introduce children to the world of words and ideas. May we always be aware of that trust and never break it! Thanks again! kwalston


  • Ruth Spiro February 19, 2012 at 8:52 pm

    Excellent post! The book, both text and illustration, is a work of art. Those of us who write for children can learn a lot from studying your analysis. Thank you!


  • Kate Coombs February 19, 2012 at 8:54 pm

    Great analysis of a beautiful book! I really like your categories, especially the way accuracy and mystery exist successfully together. "Subnivean zone" is my new favorite term. (The Spanish word for snow is "nieve.")


  • Donna Earnhardt February 19, 2012 at 8:57 pm

    Years of work… exactly! I found that out first hand.

    For me, picture books are the literary equivalent of the TARDIS. They are bigger and more complex on the inside than they look from the outside. And learning how to land the TARDIS is a lot easier than finding the perfect ending for a picture book. 🙂

    (Sorry for all the Doctor Who references, I'm in withdrawal right now)

    Over and Under the Snow looks like a book my children will enjoy. Especially my non-fiction loving 9yo!


  • Priscilla Mizell February 19, 2012 at 9:36 pm

    This post was insightful and incredibly helpful! Thanks for taking the time to explain what makes OVER AND UNDER THE SNOW work as a picture book.


  • Jaesi February 21, 2012 at 8:31 pm

    Yes, very important for our children to feel belonging in this unfamiliar world to them.


  • tinamcho December 25, 2012 at 6:40 pm

    I agree, very insightful into the art of nonfiction picture books! Thanks for sharing!


  • Shutta Crum December 29, 2012 at 3:03 pm

    Thanks! Enjoyed this critical look at what makes a wonderful nonfiction picture book. Esp. the emphasis on sound and mystery.


  • Matia Marshall October 24, 2016 at 1:07 pm

    Thank you for highlighting this beautiful text and the elements that you focused on. The magic and layering is so amazing when accomplished and so hard to do. Can’t wait to find this book. 🙂


  • Carrie Pearson October 24, 2016 at 1:27 pm

    There she goes again giving an analysis that explains AND motivates! Thank you, Melissa.


  • Luis Diaz October 24, 2016 at 3:48 pm

    As an author of a beloved picture book, it’s inspirational to see fellow authors and illustrators exuding so much passion and creativity at the turn of every page!


  • Dionna October 24, 2016 at 7:50 pm

    Thank you, Melissa, for this insightful and thoughtful post. You’ve given us a lovely example of language and art singing together in Over and Under the Snow.


  • Yvette October 25, 2016 at 8:19 am

    Your writing is so beautiful, my heart has grown a bit today❣


  • Eve Robillard October 26, 2016 at 7:01 am

    Informative and inspiring. Thank you for this.
    eve robillard


  • Dayne Sislen October 26, 2016 at 8:37 am

    I love this thoughtful and helpful post about a great book. I plan to spread the word about the post and the picture book “Over and Under the Snow”.



  • Robin Joy Berenson October 26, 2016 at 3:21 pm

    Wonderful article – very interesting!
    Thank you.


  • B.J.Lee October 26, 2016 at 8:11 pm

    I love this book.! Now I understand why ! Thank you, Melissa!


  • Norah Colvin October 26, 2016 at 9:10 pm

    What a beautiful book. I really enjoyed the way you explained the author’s techniques.


  • Graham Coiusens October 27, 2016 at 2:35 am

    That was the most satisfying pieces I’ve read for ages. Wonderfully insightful. Thank you very much.


  • David LaRochelle November 2, 2016 at 12:56 pm

    Such a beautiful book, and what a great article reminding us of all the thought and planning that goes into a “simple” picture book. Thank you!


  • Wanda Luthman November 18, 2016 at 4:13 am

    I really like this explanation precisely because it doesn’t give an exact answer. So often today people write, “3 Things That Will Make Your Picture Book Great,” and we all know that it takes more than 3 things but we get drawn in to read that post. Thank you for keeping it real and for leaving room for the artist to use their magic to make a story great!


  • Robert Zammarchi July 26, 2017 at 9:23 am

    We own this beautuful book and I can honestly say I don’t know how it came into our domain, among the many that we collect for our family. It sat on the shelf for some time before I rediscovered it and truly gave it the attention it deserves. Thank for your post in regards to its deeper meaning. We feel it too.


  • Jemma September 4, 2017 at 12:42 pm

    Do you ever ask children? It honestly looks a little flat. Picasso spent a great part of his life trying to paint with the freedom of a child. Or Ivy Wallace who used such detail it seems to me, as a Mother of three that the books out there are remarkably prosaic and minimalism is in. My daughter found this a bit frightening, and the toes weird. I just think that its very accurate yet flat.


  • Katy January 17, 2019 at 7:58 am

    THIS – this is something I am always struggling with when working on non-fiction for children. There are some concepts that if you over simplify, could lead to misconceptions for young readers. It is a difficult balancing act.

    “there is a great deal of discussion about the line between artistic interpretation (in both text and art) and the factual import children need from nonfiction books. How much abstraction for artistic intent is acceptable? What needs to come across in information? What needs to come across in feeling?’


  • Virginia Rinkel January 19, 2019 at 8:50 pm

    I love this book!

    The chosen words so rightly put the feelings of the walk in the snow and the ending is remarkable.

    Can’t say enough about the wonder of this book!


  • Sherrie Cho April 9, 2019 at 8:17 am

    Love this!


  • Bandar Togel June 6, 2019 at 4:21 am

    Good article. I’m going through many of these issues as well..


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